Metrics details Abstract Understanding factors and mechanisms causing large carnivore aggression towards people is crucial for their conservation in modern human-dominated landscapes. We present detailed descriptions of wolf attacks on people in early summer in two areas of Poland, analysis of behaviour, fitness and origin of individuals responsible for the attacks and management actions undertaken by local communities as well as governmental bodies and non-governmental organisations.
We show that attacks were caused by yearling wolves month-old male and month-old female originating divisions territoriales suisse anti aging local packs, which appeared near households several months prior to incidents.
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Both individuals were positively food-conditioned and showed increasing habituation caused by irresponsible behaviour of people such as long-lasting intentional feeding or illegal keeping.
Post mortem necropsy revealed obesity and serious abnormality of spleen polysplenia in the problem female wolf that negatively impacted her fitness and was the most likely reason for her presence near households and feeding on leftovers. Despite prolonged observations of these wolves very close to human settlements less than 30 mno mitigation actions were undertaken until the attacks, after which both individuals were killed.
We provide several recommendations to avoid aggressive human-carnivore encounters. Introduction Conservation of large carnivores is often justified by their key role in ecosystems Steneck ; Kuijper et al. Nonetheless, their presence in nowadays human-dominated landscapes is inevitably connected with a wide array of issues, including threat to human safety Löe and Röskaft Despite global decreases in the abundance of large carnivores Estes et al.
The divisions territoriales suisse anti aging frequency of encounters with large carnivores is additionally provoked by the intense recreational activities of people in natural habitats, intentional feeding to attract wild animals, expansion of human settlements, growing adaptation of carnivores to anthropogenic landscapes and even climate change Penteriani et al.
Compared with other species Langley and Morrow ; Forrester et al. However, if such cases occur, they often receive excessive media attention Löe and Röskaft ; Bombieri et al. Therefore, understanding mechanisms affecting large carnivore aggression towards people is crucial for the effective management of conflicts LCIE Although bears and big cats are responsible for most fatalities caused by large carnivores worldwide Bombieri et al.
It is particularly important in regions where the range and number of wolves has substantially increased in the last few decades Chapron et al. Wolf attacks on humans are extremely rare; in addition, historical descriptions of wolf attacks on people often fail to provide reliable information due to errors in recording, exaggerations and problems with translations Linnell et al.
Therefore, our understanding of aggressive wolf-human encounters is largely based on anecdotal data Jenness ; Rajpurohit ; Türkmen et divisions territoriales suisse anti aging. The whole picture is additionally blurred by false claims of wolf attacks Caniglia et al. In this paper, we provide detailed descriptions of contemporary wolf attacks on five people in two different areas in Poland, analysis of the behaviour and origin of individuals causing the attacks and management actions undertaken by official bodies to solve these problems.
Material and methods Study sites Our study includes two areas located in separate parts of Poland km distance between them Fig. The country is inhabited by three large carnivore species, the wolf, brown bear Ursus arctos and Eurasian lynx Lynx lynxall of them strictly protected. However, only the wolf is widely distributed Jędrzejewski et al. Divisions territoriales suisse anti aging areas denotes forests. The wolf occurs in the Bieszczady Mts.
The local ungulate community consists of three game species: red deer Cervus elaphus with density of 7. There legjobb értékelésű anti aging termékek also a reintroduced, free-living, fully protected but small population of European bison Bison bonasus. There is only limited deliberate reduction of game ungulates in the BNP, but in adjacent areas, intensive hunting is conducted within hunting grounds managed by state forests or hunting clubs of the Polish Hunting Union PHU.
Commercial trophy hunt tickets for wild ungulates are also sold to hunters from abroad. The BNP, together with a buffer zone including the Cisna community about km2is inhabited by four wolf packs Pirga and Polakiewicz The main source of income of local people is farming and livestock breeding, following by forestry, sawmilling and woodwork. Over the last 10 years, however, there has been a substantial increase in tourism focused on natural resources, especially trophy hunting for game ungulates, wildlife watching and wildlife photography for which local communities provide accommodation, food and tourist guidance Churski Case 2 occurred at the north-western edge of the Noteć Forest hereinafter NFin Bagniewo and Trzebicz Młyn villages located in the Drezdenko community.
NF is the large lowland forest tract ca. The area is mainly covered with planted Scots pine Pinus sylvestris monocultures Kusiak and Dymek-Kusiak There are several, although small, Natura sites protecting wolf habitats Diserens et al. After a long-term absence caused by their deliberate extermination Nowak and Mysłajekwolves recolonised the area in Nowak and Mysłajekand inthe population reached six wolf packs Nowak et al.
The wolf is the only large carnivore permanently inhabiting NF. The ungulate community consists of three native game species—the roe deer 0.
Hunting is conducted within hunting grounds managed by state forests or hunting clubs of the Polish Hunting Union.
The NF area is sparsely populated, with only lone settlements or small villages in the central part of the forest, while villages or towns are located on the edges, near larger lakes and on the banks of two big rivers.
The NF serves as a recreation area in late spring, summer and early autumn. There are many camp sites, weekend cabins and hotels near the lakes and rivers, which cause an increasing human pressure on the forest during vegetation season.
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Bagniewo and Trzebicz Młyn villages located about 1 km apart to each other comprise about 20 houses spread within woods and fields and adjacent to large meadows of the Noteć river valley. Their inhabitants mostly work in towns or bigger villages, have small fields and few livestock or are retired. Some residents are foresters or hunters. Methods Animal aggression towards humans is a result of both environmental and social factors.
Therefore, to investigate causes of wolf aggressive behaviour, we aimed to gather information regarding animals causing attacks, and their relationship with local wolf populations, as well as reactions of local citizens and actions undertaken by authorities. We applied the following methods: Post mortem analysis and documentation Both wolves causing attacks on people were shot. After culling, a preliminary photo documentation was collected and tissue samples for genetic analysis were delivered to the laboratory at the Faculty of Biology at the University of Warsaw.
Afterwards, the heads of wolves were taken to run tests for rabies in territorially relevant offices of the Veterinary Inspectorate and the rest of the bodies were stored in freezers.
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As results of tests were known, heads were returned to institutions performing necropsies. For the case 1 the necropsy was conducted at the County Veterinary Inspectorate in Sanok by a veterinarian specialised in internal diseases of wild animals Kaczor For the case 2, the necropsy was done in a veterinary clinic in Bielsko-Biała Całus by a veterinarian specialising in wild animals accompanied by two wildlife biologists all co-authors of this paper—SN, IC, RWM.
During both necropsies, comprehensive photo documentations were done.
The age of wolves was estimated based on tooth wear Gipson et al. Genetic analyses We applied DNA analysis based on autosomal microsatellite loci and a fragment of mtDNA control region of both individuals causing attacks on people. To reveal their origin, we checked the relationships of both wolves with samples collected across the whole of Poland during studies on the wolf genetic structure in Central Europe —including samples from the forests where attacks occurred Szewczyk et al.
Wolf tracking In case 1, we conducted wolf tracking in the Divisions territoriales suisse anti aging Mts. In case 2, 1 day after the first attack, we started and continued over the following months wolf tracking in the area surrounding the village. During tracking, the location of wolf tracks and divisions territoriales suisse anti aging signs were recorded; we also assessed the number of individuals.
All used field methods are described in Nowak and Mysłajek and Mysłajek et al. Camera trapping and analysis of photos and videos taken by local citizens We collected all available pictures and video footage of wolves before and after the attacks recorded by local people and tourists 1 video and 5 photos for case 1 and 5 videos and 16 photos for case 2.
Additionally in case 2, a day after the initial attack, we installed three camera traps: at the front of the location of the attack, at the site indicated by inhabitants where wolves regularly visit and in the place which we defined during our tracking.
After the wolf was shot, local people claimed that ocutein allergo szemcsepp still appeared close to buildings; therefore, we installed camera traps in three new locations shown by inhabitants.
At divisions territoriales suisse anti aging same time, we installed two camera traps in the nearby forest in places where we recorded signs of wolf presence. Altogether, we recorded 12 videos of wolves and dogs near houses and in the vicinity of both villages. Interviews with local people In both areas, we personally or via phone interviewed people who observed wolves before the accidents or witnessed the behaviour of wolves during and after attacks.
In case 1, the group included six people and in case 2, 10 people in total see Supplementary Material for the list of interviewed people. Analyses of wolf behaviour Wolf behaviour documented with pictures, videos and reported by witness was classified according to terminology described by the policy support statements of the Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe LCIE Documentation of the decision process Because the co-author of the paper SN was involved from the very beginning in both cases as a wolf expert, we were able to document all stages of the decision process, and the exchange of information between local communities, regional and national authorities and other stakeholders involved.
We also obtained copies of the decisions of the General Directorate for Environmental Protection hereinafter GDEPas well as documents issued by other authorities and institutions.
Results Case 1 Within 2 weeks, attacks of a single wolf on three people occurred in two villages located 12 km apart in the Bieszczady Mts.
The first attack June 12, took place about 10 p. An adult woman coming back from a shower cabin to her tent heard an unusual sound and when looking back she noticed a wolf-like canid approaching her. Several seconds later the canid bit her in the calf. When divisions territoriales suisse anti aging screamed, the canid started to run off. The alarmed owner of the camping came within few minutes and helped to chase away the animal.
The bitten woman was taken to a hospital, and after necessary examination, anti-rabies vaccination and with wounds healing but without stitches, she came back to the camping site. The second attack June 26, took place about 7 p.
The wolf bit an 8-year-old girl and year-old boy playing outside in two different locations several hundred meters apart in Przysłup, a little village surrounded by forests. Their relatives quickly chased the wolf off. Both children had wounds on their legs, while the girl also had wounds on her buttock.
They spent several hours in the hospital, got the necessary vaccinations and wound suturing and finally returned home. In all these cases, no saliva samples from the wounds were taken for genetic analyses to identify the attacking animal. Actions undertaken after attacks After consultations with the wolf expert the General Director for Environmental Protection GDEP, the national governmental agency responsible for wildlife management in Poland issued on June 14,the decision for culling the wolf.
However, despite it being observed in the adjacent villages, its presence was not reported to officers for the next 2 weeks, until the second attack occurred. Divisions territoriales suisse anti aging hour later, the wolf was shot in vicinity of the village by the local hunter having permission for its culling, from a distance of 6 m. Next day, an officer of the Bieszczady National Park BNF took post mortem pictures, collected genetic samples and elaborated a preliminary report.
After the cull, incidents with wolves attacking humans stopped abruptly in the area.
Post mortem analyses and characteristics of the divisions territoriales suisse anti aging causing attacks The shot wolf was a male. The officer of BNP and the veterinarian performing the necropsy assessed its age at 2—3 years, but later thorough examination of the skull and tooth, wear conducted by the authors SN, RWM revealed that the wolf was 13 months old.
The animal was in a good shape, with a skin pattern typical for wolves and no signs of external parasites. All organs were of regular structure, without any evidences of diseases. The stomach was filled with the digested mass of leftovers, most probably divisions territoriales suisse anti aging from garbage containers.
The paws were regular and had the typical wolf black pads, without the fifth claws on the hind legs. The only anomaly was damaged, very short claws, unlike in other wild living wolves, but observed in dogs regularly walking on hard surfaces. Wounds and fractures, as well as broken canines, revealed during necropsy were caused by the shot from a short distance with a shotgun shell.
The test for rabies was negative. Relatedness analysis identified his two putative full siblings: a male sampled in March3.
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Another two wolves sampled in the same area were not identified as first-order relatives of the problem wolf, but they also belonged to the same wolf pack possibly half-siblings or cousins see Supplementary Material for further details.
Each bar represents a multilocus microsatellite genotype of a single individual. Exact values of individual assignments to clusters could be found in Suppl.
Table S1 Full size image Wolf presence in the area prior to attacks According to studies conducted by Pirga and Polakiewiczthe area is overlapped by the edges of territories of two wolf packs called Ruska and Sina. Inthe Ruska pack consisted of 12—14 individuals, including several pups, while the Sina pack was estimated as 5—7 individuals.