Equipment used for in vivo characterization of botanical creams. All parts of this plant, from root to flowers, possess various medicinal activities such as antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, and anticancer [ 86 ]. Ali et al. They found improved mechanical features of skin, that is, reduced levels of roughness, scaliness, smoothness, and wrinkles of photoaged skin. The investigators attributed this antiaging activity to the phenolic compounds present in extract; the phenolics have capability to quench ROS.
Benincasa hispida The major constituents of Benincasa hispida Cucurbitaceae are triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, saccharides, carotenes, vitamins, β-sitosterin, and uronic acid [ 87 ].
The fruit of this plant is effective for different diseases including cardiac disease, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer [ 88 ]. The water-in-oil cream of fruit extract of Benincasa hispida showed antioxidant activity revealing its potential to retard symptoms of aging [ 28 ].
Calendula officinalis Calendula officinalis belongs to family Compositae. This egyszerűen gyönyörű skinpuravol anti aging és reviderm is rich in active compounds including terpenoids, carotenoids, flavonoids, and volatile oils [ 89 ].
The water-in-oil cream of flower extract of Calendula officinalis exhibited aptitude of stimulating skin tightness and improved skin elasticity leading to delayed aging process. Moreover, this preparation enhances the skin hydration level, as evident from reduced TEWL values, which is fáradt szemre for normal cutaneous metabolism; it prevents early aging [ 29 ].
In addition, the reduction in skin melanin contents and the decrease in skin sebum level were also observed after application of this formulation [ 30 ]. Camellia sinensis Green Tea and Nelumbo nucifera Lotus Potent antioxidants have been isolated from both green tea and lotus. Green tea is rich in a polyphenol, catechins, especially EGCG which is a strong antioxidant [ 90 ]. The water-in-oil cream loaded with ethanolic leaf extract of Camellia sinensis significantly reduced the sebum production as compared to base formulation formulation without extract [ 31 ].
In another study, Mahmood et al. Green tea plus lotus together produced statistically better antisebum effect [ 33 ]. It indicates that active ingredients in lotus add a synergistic effect to the activity of green tea that can be attributed to 5α-reductase inhibition activity of both extracts [ 91 ]. Zinc compounds, polyphenolics, flavonoids, tannic acid, and linoleic acid are excessively found in lotus [ 92 ].
Linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, and EGCG have an advantage illóolaj anti aging arckrém inhibiting sebum production due to their 5α-reductase inhibition activity [ 93 ]. In another study, the researchers noted the significant effectiveness of nano-multiple emulsion against skin wrinkles, roughness, and scaliness leading to skin revitalization effect.
Green tea and lotus combined in multiple emulsions exerted a superior synergistic antiaging effect [ 34 ]. In addition, Mahmood and Akhtar also reported that this formulation had an advantage of reducing melanin and improving hydration contents of skin without causing erythema [ avoir anti aging szérum összetevők ].
Capparis decidua Capparis decidua belongs to family Capparidaceae [ 94 ]. This plant is rich in active compounds including isothiocyanate glucoside, glucocapparin, stachydrine, n-triacontane, β-carotene, and β-sitosterol [ 95 ].
Open in a separate window Skin Care Healthy and functioning skin barrier is important protector against dehydration, penetration of various microorganisms, allergens, irritants, reactive oxygen species and radiation. The skin barrier may be specifically adjusted to allow penetration. For this reason daily skin care may increase skin regeneration, elasticity, smoothness, and thus temporarily change the skin condition.
The water-in-oil emulsion cream of plant extract of Capparis decidua exhibited reduction in skin sebum level after application on skin [ 36 ]. Castanea sativa Castanea sativa Fagaceae contains catechin, myricetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside.
The surfactant-free cream of ethanolic extract of Castanea sativa leaves has been found to produce moisturizing effect on human skin by controlling transepithelial water loss [ 37 ]. Coffea arabica Coffea arabica belongs to family Rubiaceae. This coffee egyszerűen gyönyörű skinpuravol anti aging és reviderm is rich in active compounds including chlorogenic acid, condensed proanthocyanidins, quinic acid, and ferulic acid [ 96 ].
All of these polyphenolic compounds possess antioxidant property [ 97 ]. Moreover, upregulated gene expression for four collagen structural proteins and downregulated gene expression for three MMPs were also observed concluding reparative effects of Coffea arabica extract upon photoaged skin.
Crocus sativus Water-in-oil emulsion based cream loaded with ethanolic extract of Crocus sativus flowers has been found to produce moisturizing effect on human skin by controlling transepithelial water loss [ 39 ]. Crocus sativus Iridaceae contains zeaxanthin, lycopene, carotenes, crocetin, and picrocrocin. Emblica officinalis Gaertn Some egyszerűen gyönyörű skinpuravol anti aging és reviderm antioxidants including gallotannins, for example, emblicanin A, emblicanin B, punigluconin, and pedunculagin, are present in Emblica officinalis Gaertn Euphorbiaceaegenerally known as Amla [ 98 gin gins suisse anti aging. This plant exists in China, India, and Indonesia.
All parts of this plant, from root to fruit, are medicinally effective in different health problems; for example, diarrhea and jaundice are effectively treated by using its fruit [ 99 ].
The hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis has been formulated as water-in-oil cream that is found effective for reducing transepidermal water loss, as observed by using Tewameter [ 40 ]. Since transepidermal water loss plays crucial role in aging process this formulation can be employed as an antiaging product.
This property of cream could be due to presence of strong antioxidants in Emblica officinalis. Foeniculum vulgare On application of water-in-oil emulsion based cream loaded with ethanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare Apiaceae seeds for eight months, reduced transepithelial water loss was observed which resulted in improved moisture contents on human skin [ 41 ].
Moreover, there was an improvement in skin mechanical properties, that is, reduced levels of roughness, scaliness, smoothness, and wrinkles of photoaged skin. In another study, Rasul et al. The decrease in skin melanin level leads to skin-whitening effect. Beside flavonoids, they attributed this effect to linoleic acid present in the used extract.
This unsaturated fatty acid, a main constituent of biological cell membranes, has an advantage of accelerating process of tyrosinase degradation resulting in reduced melanin synthesis due to low tyrosinase levels [ ]. Furthermore, this cream may be useful for skin acne due to its diminishing effect on skin sebum level. Oleic acid, linolenic acid, and linoleic acid, present in Foeniculum vulgare extract, could be responsible for this effect [ ].
These unsaturated fatty acids have inhibitory effect on sebum production owing to selective inhibition of 5-reductase which is involved in production of sebum [ ]. Lastly, there was decrease in erythema on treated skin; this effect elaborates the anti-inflammatory action of this cream.
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Hippophae rhamnoides By using Cutometer, Khan et al. Another study reported the antisebum secretion effect of same formulation [ ]. Moreover, the extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula were also found effective in the reduction of skin sebum content antiacne effects in human with grade I and grade II acne vulgaris [ ]. Khan et al.
The possible antiaging effect was pointed out as a feature of antioxidants such as carotene, particularly β-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E present in extract.
The Hippophae rhamnoides extract affects skin mechanical properties through increased expression of cell surface integrins that promote collagen contraction.
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Moreover, Khan et al. Furthermore, same researchers also described reduction in skin melanin level and erythema egyszerűen gyönyörű skinpuravol anti aging és reviderm using this cream [ ]. Lithospermum erythrorhizon Oil-in-water emulsion based cream loaded with ethanolic extract of Lithospermum erythrorhizon root has been found to produce moisturizing effect on human skin by controlling transepithelial water loss.
Lithospermum erythrorhizon Boraginaceae contains shikonin, acetylshikonin, deoxyshikonin, b-acetoxyisovalerylshikonin, isobutylshikonin, b,b-dimethyl acrylshikonin, 2-methyl-n-butyrylshikonin, and isovalerylshikonin [ 44 ]. Malus domestica The reduced transepithelial water loss has been observed leading to improved moisture contents in human skin after application of water-in-oil emulsion based cream loaded with hydroalcoholic extract of Malus domestica Rosaceae seeds for eight months [ 45 ].
Moreover, there was an improvement in skin mechanical properties, that is, reduced levels of roughness, scaliness, smoothness, and wrinkles of the photoaged skin.
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In another study, Khan et al. These antiaging effects on skin could be attributed to flavonoid, quercetin, and hesperetin, present in Malus domestica extract [ 46 ]. Matricaria chamomilla L. After skin treatment with water-in-oil emulsion based cream loaded with hydroalcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla plant for eight weeks, reduced transepithelial water loss was observed.
Since an increase in transepithelial water loss shows disruption of the stratum corneum and loss of intercellular lipids, accordingly this formulation possibly repairs the stratum corneum and improves the moisture contents in human skin [ 47 ]. Moreover, there was an improvement in skin mechanical properties, that is, diminished levels of roughness, scaliness, smoothness, and wrinkles of photoaged skin .
The investigators attributed this antiaging activity to the phenolic compounds present in extract. Matricaria chamomilla belongs to Asteraceae family and contains some bioactive ingredients including terpenes, polysaccharides, and flavonoids such as α-bisabolol and apigenin.
Moringa oleifera Moringa oleifera Moringaceae contains carotene, vitamin C, vitamin B, vitamin A, carotenoids, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, syringic acid, and rutin. All parts of this plant, from root to leaves, possess various medicinal activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, and antioxidant .
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The investigators found reduced undesirable skin sebum contents of skin and diminished skin transepidermal water loss leading to increased skin hydration, particularly for dry skin using Sebumeter and Corneometer, respectively.
In addition, same formulation was also found effective against skin wrinkles, roughness, and scaliness leading to skin revitalization effect [ 50 ]. They tagged the antiaging characteristic of Moringa oleifera to the phenolic compounds present in extract, since the phenolics have capability to scavenge ROS.
Morus alba Morus alba belongs to family Moraceae. This plant is rich in active compounds including anthocyanins, gallic acid, flavonoids and tannins, citric acid, vitamin C, and palmitic acid . Akhtar et al. After 8 weeks, the studied skin areas were tested using Mexameter and Corneometer.
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The results indicated the reduction in melanin contents of skin, without producing erythema, attributing this activity to the presence of anthocyanin and flavonoids. These phenolics have tyrosinase inhibition activity, one of the modes of antiaging activity [ 5152].
In another study, Akhtar et al. Ocimum basilicum Rasul and Akhtar reported the improvement in facial skin mechanical viscoelasticity and biochemical parameters superoxide egyszerűen gyönyörű skinpuravol anti aging és reviderm, catalase, total protein, and ascorbic acid level when skin was treated with water-in-oil emulsion based cream loaded with ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae seeds [ 53 ].
Moreover, the reduction in malondialdehyde level was also noted.
The possible antiaging effect was pointed out as a feature of antioxidants such as quercetin, isoquercetin, kaempferol, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin, catechin, ferulic acid, rutinoside, and apigenin present in extract [ ]. Oryza sativa Some strong antioxidants including ferulic acid, gamma-oryzanol, and phytic acid are present in Oryza sativa Poaceae. The grains extract of Oryza sativa was loaded to niosomes followed by the preparation of water-in-oil cream using these niosomes.
This cream was found effective for reducing transepidermal water loss, as observed by using Corneometer and Evaporimeter. Since transepidermal water loss plays crucial role in aging process by enhancing skin hydration, this formulation can be employed as an antiaging product.
This feature of cream could be due to strong antioxidants present in Oryza sativa extract [ 54 ].
Polygonum minus Haris et al. The possible antiaging effect egyszerűen gyönyörű skinpuravol anti aging és reviderm be due to the antioxidants such as caffeic acid and quercetin [ ]. Punica granatum Kaur and Saraf reported the improvement in facial skin mechanical viscoelasticity and biochemical parameters catalase and ascorbic acid concentration [ 56 ].
These results indicate the antiaging effect of nanotransfersomes loaded cream.
The investigators used nanotransfersomes loaded with ethanolic extract of Punica granatum Punicaceae seeds to prepare a novel cream beside development of conventional cream. The possible antiaging effect was pointed out as a feature of antioxidants such as anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and hydrolysable tannins present in extract.
Silybum egyszerűen gyönyörű skinpuravol anti aging és reviderm On application of water-in-oil emulsion based cream loaded with ethanolic extract of Silybum marianum Asteraceae seeds for eight months, reduced transepithelial water loss was observed which resulted in improved moisture contents in human skin [ 57 ]. Tagetes erecta Linn.
Asteraceae contains quercetagetin, syringic acid, lutin, quercetin, and gallates. This plant possesses different medicinal activities including antiaging, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory [ — ]. Leelapornpisid et al. These carriers were then formulated as cream and applied to photoaged ritualuri anti aging tibeti. Using Visiometer, the researchers observed reduction in skin wrinkles of photoaged skin without producing skin irritation after eight weeks of cream usage.
The investigators attributed this antiaging activity to the antioxidants present in extract.