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Texte intégral PDF k Signaler ce document 1Like many intellectuals in Europe, Hungarian writers and intellectuals took part in the mobilization of intellect in their country and created their own war culture from the beginning of WWI. And, like the war culture of many Hungarian politicians and of the mass press, it was based on hatred. At the beginning of the conflict, many Hungarian writers and intellectuals of all ideological persuasions offered their pens and their words to blame or even reject the enemy culture, especially French culture.

1. Introduction

This study looks at those authors and journals involved in creating their war culture through the criticism of France and French culture during the first mobilization years In ibid. Likewise, in Hungary, the interpretation of foreign cultures and literatures took place in a more or less exclusive geopolitical frame at the beginning of the conflict and French culture and literature became part of this geopolitical re-evaluation process.

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WWI is a good example where geopolitical arguing was often mixed up with reviving old szem gyulladás okai and stereotypes defined by political as well as intellectual trends in the past.

Espagne and Werner also emphasize the importance of individuals and groups in transferring ideas, representations and cultural objects. Due to the total character of WWI and the closing of the borders, the number of persons to pass through the frontiers decreased significantly; some mobility, as one important element of any cultural exchange, remained, however, but — at least at the beginning— only Swiss culturactif anti aging allied countries and, to some extent, towards neutral ones.

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Ideas and objects could also cross the borders with difficulty. Accordingly, when criticizing France duringmany Hungarian writers and intellectuals also thought explicitly or implicitly in terms of a French-German Kulturwar to take over the leadership of Europe in intellectual and cultural matters and where Hungarians could find a new, less marginal position than they thought had before the conflict.

Magyar állam Anti-French or anti-British sentiments, due to the lack of common battlefields, Swiss culturactif anti aging of secondary importance for the majority of Hungarians. Accordingly, there were great differences regarding hatred and atrocities against enemy civilians on Hungarian soil.

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Although the rights of French or British citizens Swiss culturactif anti aging restricted, they were not, unlike Serbians, harassed in the streets, and they were significantly much less interned, too. Háborús névadások Budapesten Stromberg, Redemption by War.

The Intellectuals andLawrence, The R Artúr Bárdos Nevertheless, by taking a closer look at the journals, a more nuanced and perhaps surprising picture can be drawn.

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In Magyar Figyelő Hungarian Observerthe major proestablishment intellectual review characterized by an inclusive version of nationalism before the conflicthatred towards the enemy was never excessive not even at the beginning. Until Marchwhen the great Carpathian battles began against the Russians on the Eastern front, it rather emphasized the heroism of Hungarians and appreciated the allies, more particularly the Germans, and did not criticize the enemies excessively. Hungarian writers close to the authorities seem to have adapted best to this low profile strategy.

Une histoire franco-allemande, Paris, Talland So the latter — whether close to the establishment or not — did not feel alone, unlike their German counterparts, in forming a general war culture, and consequently could express more or less divergent opinions.

Benyomások és élmények, 1st and 2nd editions ; 3rd edition The anniversary of Sedan — victory of the Germans ov Új Idők republished Panin Sergius during the conflict and even offered a discount to its subscribers. Ervin k. On one hand, due to a lack of war literature in Hungarian at the beginning of the conflict, Budapest people Swiss culturactif anti aging to foreign authors on the subject.

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On the other, WWI could not alter reading habits overnight, on account of several circumstances: the national publishing industry came Swiss culturactif anti aging a halt until late it was dyingtransportation from abroad significantly decreased, and readers were short of money to buy books.

Acquisitions by the Central Library of Budapest were German books and periodicals at the beginning of the conflict, 27 but later on it got in touch with the Dutch book merchant Martinus Nijhoff and the Swiss-Italian company Olschki, in order to continue to procure French and English books and reviews.

However, censorship of these publications would only be stopped by the Prime Minister himself, István Tisza, during the first months of The subject of the encircled French capital did not disappear totally after the first years of the war: Swiss culturactif anti aging in Septemberthe writer Lajos Barta reviewed in Nyugat a German booklet on the siege of Paris in Paris Similarly to many Swiss culturactif anti aging Catholic journals, this one was traditionally hostile to French republicanism and democracy and blamed them for modern lifestyles, materialism and individualism.

The ultraconservative congregational monthy Magyar Kultúra Hungarian Culturefounded by the Jesuit priest Béla Bagha, and the literary weekly Élet Life laid great emphasis on new values created by the war.

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A number of anti-values were listed since August promiscuity, immorality, pornography, frivolity and so forth. Verbal abuse used by these journals was typical of anti-modernist and anti-feminist discourses. While the journal disdained French modernist writers, at the same time, in OctoberFrench Catholic provincial writers such as Frédéric Mistral were still praised.

But since the outbreak of the conflict they had lost much of their independence along with their Francophilia. Seemingly, they made a complete withdrawal by criticizing France and French culture during the first weeks, but the majority of these writers and intellectuals often adopted the voice of the betrayed lover, hinting at their previous positive feelings toward France and French culture.

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They also hoped that the force of the war would revitalize artistic activity and the relationship of war and literature became a burning topic. Many of them also expressed serious dilemmas regarding France and French culture. Their discourse on France was the most complex discourse on hatred in the whole Hungarian intellectual life. So many of these writers adopted the voice of the betrayed lover, but once the August fever ended, they preferred to fall silent about France.

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Ilona Bölöni was disappointed by RepertóriumBudapest, PIM,p. This article was one of the very few to prove that anti-French and anti-Semitic sentiments could merge together in Hungary during WWI. At that time, Világ was equally characterized by Anti-French and anti-Russian sentiments, but anti-British and anti-Serbian sentiments Swiss culturactif anti aging came in second. Self-censorship became widespread among intellectuals, particularly during the first months.

Those who tried to defend Swiss culturactif anti aging and French culture on a democratic and liberal basis during the first months were more low-key and raised their voice, not without ambivalence, in Nyugat, the autonomous literary review, and, to a lesser extent, in the daily Világ. Some of these voices tended to articulate a moderate criticism of political France in order to come to the defense of French intellectual culture.

Bölöni herself was devastated to hear about the brutalities of the French authorities against Austro-Hungarian citizens on French soil: 53 Ibid. When i heard about brutalities in paris, it was as if the warmest feelings of my soul had been whipped fiercely.

France], Nyugat, No. Letter to Erno Mi lesz a háború után? Ignotus also used in Világ the same technique in one of his articles separating political Russia and modern Russian literature by claiming that the latter had to be preserved. Ignotus stressed the antagonism of a young Germany where knowledge is shared by members of the society more than in France. Germans were typically organized, ready for action and prepared to make sacrifices, which looked much more Swiss culturactif anti aging in war than literature, arts and so forth.

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Zoltán Szász, a liberal journalist and writer at the daily Pesti Hírlap and an occasional contributor to Új Idők, published several essays on Germany. Luckily enough, everything that a nation can learn from another, any type of organization, exists in an exemplary way among the germans, but everything it cannot learn, such as physical and spiritual maturity, exists in large parts at home [i.

Les intellectuels et la Première Guerre Les chaires de littérature étrangère au This argument, they thought, worked particularly well with regard to Western European enemies.

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It is no small detail that it does matter to our enemies whether or not we stay alive, because our life protects them from ruining themselves and we are preserving their life protecting ideas—the very ideas they themselves abandoned. France was a widespread topic in the German war press in the first months.

See anonymo The same Dezső Kosztolányi would translate and publish in December the poem Hassgesang Swiss culturactif anti aging England by Ernst Lissauer referring to this very same young German culture and hatred in war. Similarly to Új Idők, another previously Francophile literary journal, A Hét The Weekly also accused French soldiers of cowardice at the beginning for hiding behind their colonial soldiers.

Is it possible that equality made alliance with whip, brotherhood with pogrom, and liberty with the prison guards of siberia? Articles praising Germany and the Germans were significantly more numerous everywhere, including Nyugat where they only began to decrease from early on.

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The Franco-German cultural and intellectual rivalry was more particularly noticed Swiss culturactif anti aging many European writers and intellectuals from the turn of the 19thth centuries, when Germany Swiss culturactif anti aging a great breakthrough in various intellectual and cultural domains. He praised certain French writers, like those around the NRF who represented, in his view, the German part of French culture.

Berlin means the opposite. In MayKároly Burján, a caustic pen in the Catholic Magyar Kultúra, instead of taking sides when Reims cathedral was destroyed in October which could indeed have been a difficult task for a Hungarian Catholic as it was about the destruction of a French churchaccused Nyugat of hypocrisy for shedding crocodile tears for Reims a couple of months before.

Rostand Svájci termálvizek anti aging compared by Ignotus to Tyrteus, a war poet of Ancient Greek times who became a symbol of the war-monger intellectual in Hungary and in other European countries during WWI.

Instead, Catholics interpreted the publication of this poem by Rostand as a betrayal of the Hungarian patriotic cause by writers of Nyugat, while, in reality, the latter condemned Rostand for his war culture in making Reims a symbol of French martyrdom.

Int J Mol Sci. Published online Jan 8. Copyright © by the authors. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Laczkó portrayed the French as selfish in essence, placing individual interests above the community. One of the reasons why Laczkó, a pre-war Francophile, turned against France was that he was horrified at the internment of his friend, the writer Aladár Kuncz, on French soil noted in his diary.

These words led to his break with individualism in his next writings in Nyugat. Every literary journal published negative articles on him for a while.

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In this major dreyfus trial of educated people, no doubts, he is supporting the paty du clams and the eszterházys. Writers on the War], art. On the other hand, the economist Tibor Vadnay stressed in the liberal-conservative Magyar Figyelő that France, who used to be known for his compassion and humanism, had disdained French glory before the conflict and spread decadence. In a period Swiss culturactif anti aging Swiss culturactif anti aging information — news from the battlefield was strictly censored — quoting them was an attempt to understand the mechanism of war and predict how the current conflict would continue.

Contemporaries also hoped that these enemy writers involuntarily unmasked the true nature of their own nation in their writings.